Common Issues and Questions

Lecture Objective

In this lecture we will cover a few key troubleshooting issues and see how we can solve them during our migration from AngularJS to Angular.


The first common issue that we will deal with is how to handle $scope.$watch, which allows our application to listen for $scope changes.

I personally believe that extensive use of $scope.$watch can be a sign of poor architecture. However, it still should be addressed in our migration process as modern Angular does not have this concept at all.

The Form

I used to work in a firm where we constantly had to deal with issues from a form component. Eventually, this turned into a running joke and this form component became, "The Form".

To better understand the issues of this form, lets look at its architecture.

46 img 001
Figure 1. Architecture of the form

There were 3 controller levels as illustrated in Figure 1. The lowest level of control contained the form which used scope inheritance to read the required properties from the outer levels.

The properties itself were being set via asynchronous function calls, so you never knew when data would be set. The input fields of the form were bound to $scope variables with scope watchers set to listen to any changes.

This behavior is illustrated in Figure 2, where setting a given property in the form would trigger a scope watch that would then proceed to set another property and so on.

46 img 002
Figure 2. Property setting

A side effect of this was that some of our test cases would sporadically fail. This was because of the asynchronous nature of some of the watchers and dependencies, and is a classic example of chaos theory.

Angular Observables

The Angular replacement for this comes in the form of observables. The essential idea of re-writing your $scope.$watch is captured in the following code snippet:

  .valueChanges (1)
  .filter(v => this.form.valid) (2)
  .debounceTime(400) (3)
  .distinctUntilChanged() (4)
  .map(v => {...}) (5)
  .subscribe(v => {...}); (6)
1 This returns an observable that emits the latest values of the form as a JSON object. Every time the form changes, the changes will be sent through this function chain.
2 Ensures only valid form changes are sent through the chain
3 Ensures only changes with at least a delay of 400 ms between each other are passed through the chain.
4 Ensures that only actual changes in the form are passed through the chain.
5 Contains a callback function that is called every time the values in the form are changed.
6 Allows us to link the form changes to an API or something similar.

This is a very high-level overview of what you can do to replace your $scope.$watch usages in Angular.

Emit & Broadcast

Both $broadcast() and $emit() allow you to raise an event in your AngularJS application, using the event system of $scope and $rootScope. Again, there is no equivalent to this in modern Angular. If you are looking for a permanent fix during your migration to Angular, you will need an architectural level solution.

However, when you are in the process of migration, there is a temporary solution that can be applied by temporarily upgrading the AngularJS $rootScope service. This can be done as follows:

Listing 1. ajs-upgraded-providers.ts — $rootScope upgrade code
export const RootScope = new InjectionToken("RootScope");

export function rootScopeServiceFactory(i: any) {
  return i.get('$rootScope');
export const rootScopeServiceProvider = {
  provide: RootScope,
  useFactory: rootScopeServiceFactory,
  deps: ['$injector']

Then, add the rootScopeServiceProvider to the list of providers in the NgModule like so:

  providers: [
export class AppModule{


Similar to our previously upgraded services, this code creates an InjectionToken and upgrades the $rootScope from the AngularJS service. Adding this to the list of providers in the NgModule makes it available to the rest of the application.

To use this in our Angular component, we can inject the rootScope via the constructor and use it using the this.rootScope. reference like so:

constructor(@Inject(RootScope) private rootScope){}


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